Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

Advanced Search

Taxonomic Hierarchy

The taxonomy browser is no longer available. Please use the search form instead.

Loxodonta cyclotis

Author Name

(Matschie, 1900).


Sitzb. Ges. Naturf. Fr. Berlin, : p194.

Common Name

African Forest Elephant.

Type Locality

Yaunde, S Cameroon.


C and W coast of Africa, including 21 countries from Senegal in the west to Uganda in the east.


Current as of November 16, 2005, please see corresponding Web site reference for most recent status.


CITES – Appendix I (as included in L. africana); U.S. ESA – Threatened (as included in L. africana); IUCN – Endangered (as included in L. africana).


albertensis Lydekker, 1907
cottoni Lydekker, 1908
fransseni Schouteden, 1914
pumilio Noack, 1906


See Laursen and Bekoff (1978, Mammalian Species, 92), where cyclotis was treated as a subspecies of L. africana. Grubb et al. (2000) presented morphological and some molecular data in support of upgrading cyclotis to a species category, separate species from africana, corroborating earlier hypothesis that Loxodonta cyclotis and L. africana are distinct species. Further, Grubb et al. (2000) supported the hypothesis that L. cyclotis is morphologically more primitive than L. africana. Roca et al. (2001) provided genetic evidence for two species in Africa. Evidence provided by Debruyne (2003), however, suggests that the African Forest Elephant and the African Bush Elephant are only subspecifically distinct – this taxonomic question has not yet been resolved.


Jeheskel Shoshani, 2005.

[ TOP ]