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Leptodactylus peritoaktites
Leptodactylus peritoaktites Photograph courtey Rafael O. de Sá.

Background and Mission

An explosion of frog molecular data for the Subfamily Leptodactylinae Werner, 1896, has resulted in many publications addressing the taxonomic relationships within this group. The Division of Amphibians and Reptiles currently recognizes the following genera within this subfamily:

  • Adenomera Steindachner, 1867
  • Hydrolaetare Gallardo, 1963
  • Leptodactylus Fitzinger, 1826
  • Lithodytes Fitzinger, 1843.

*These designations are supported by Frost’s Amphibian Species of the World 5.6 and the extensive taxonomic revision by Pyron and Wiens, 2011.

The purpose of the bibliography is to complete citations for species and subspecies within these genera and provide scientists with a robust reference tool. Articles that mention these taxa only at the generic level are not included in this resource. The bibliography is an ongoing research project conducted by Ron Heyer and Miriam Heyer, Division of Amphibians and Reptiles, that was initially supported by NSF-DEB award 0342918 to Rafael de Sá and W. Ronald Heyer. New article citations are added on a monthly basis.


Download EndNote® File This is a compressed zip file created from EndNote version X1. To open this file you must have EndNote version 8 or higher. There are 10,071 references and the last numbered citation is 10,294. [File updated 27 July 2018.]

Download Word File This is a MS Word Rich Text Format (RTF) of the EndNote file. There are 10,071 references and the last numbered citation is 10,294. [File updated 27 July 2018.]

Leptodactylus pustulatus
Leptodactylus pustulatus Photograph courtesy of Pedro Peloso.

Guide to Searches and Keywords in the EndNote® Bibliography

Any term can be searched in any EndNote field, as well as in the keywords field. The keywords in this bibliography include valid scientific names, synonyms of valid names; misspelled scientific names; countries; and terms usually associated with keywords such as “habitat” or “locality records”.

Species names as they appear in the publication are listed in the keywords section. The current understanding of those names, if different from their usage in the publication, is indicated in the notes section.

Four keywords guides are provided to assist in your searches: (1) a complete list in text file format and three subsets of keywords, (2) valid species list, (3) country list, and (4) topical keyword list in RTF file formats. The keywords used in the EndNote® bibliography may not always match the keywords the publisher associates with an article.

The label section contains tracking information on the completeness of the citations. The notes category aids in locating Leptodactylus publications in the ground floor amphibian and reptile library. The research notes category contains information of use to researchers.

Contact Information

We would appreciate your bringing to our attention any references we have not yet included. Please send such citations to


This bibliography has been possible only with the support of the staff at the Natural History branch of the Smithsonian Institution Library who processed a flood of interlibrary loan requests. The University of Richmond library personnel also aided with the bibliography.  We also keenly appreciate the generosity of innumerable colleagues that provided references.

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