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Pietsch, Thodore W. and William D. Anderson. 1997. Collection Building in Ichthyology and Herpetology. The American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Special Publication Number 3.
Rathbun, Richard. 1884. The North Pacific Exploring Expedition. Bulletin of U.S. National Museum no. 27: 532-35.
Rivinius, E.F. and E.M. Youssef. 1992. Spencer Baird of the Smithsonian Institution. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.
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U.S. War Department. Pacific Railroad Surveys. 1855-1860. Reports of Explorations and Surveys, to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, 12 vols. Washington, n.p.
Viola, J. Herman and Carolyn Margolis (eds). Magnificent Voyagers: The U.S. Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985.
Welch, Margaret. 1998. The Book of Nature: Natural History in the United States, 1825-1875. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
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In addition to the above sources, the following biographical dictionaries and annual reports were consulted:
American National Biography. 1900-2000. New York: Oxford University Press. 24 vols.
Biographical Dictionary of American and Canadian Naturalists and Environmentalist. 1997. Keri B. Sterling, etal. (ed). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Dictionary of American Biography. 1928-1935. New York: Charles Scribners. 22 vols.
Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 1970-1980. New York: Charles Scribners. 16 vols.
Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. (various years).
Report of the Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries. (various years).
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