Skip to main content.

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
Website Search Box

Department ofVertebrate Zoology

Division of Fishes

Spencer F. Baird
Spencer F. Baird circa 1875
© Smithsonian Institution

Allard, Dean C. 1978. Spencer Fullerton Baird and the U.S. Fish Commission. New York: Arno Press.

Allard, Dean C. 1990. The Fish Commission Laboratory and its influence on the founding of the Marine Biological Laboratory. Journal of History of Biology 23: 251-270.

Baker, Marcus. 1900. Survey of the Northwestern Boundary Survey of the United States, 1857-1861. Washington: Government Printing Office. (Bulletin of U.S. Geological Survey No. 174).

Billings, J.S. 1895. Memoir of Spencer Fullerton Baird, 1823-87. Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences 3: 141-60.

Blum, Ann S. Picturing Nature: American Nineteenth-Century Zoological Illustration. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Cohen, Daniel M. 1963. The Publication Dates of Goode and Bean's Oceanic Ichthyology. Journal of the Society for Bibliography of Natural History 4: 162-65.

Dall, William H. 1915. Spencer Fullerton Baird. A Biography, Including Selections from His Correspondence with Audubon, Agassiz, Dana, and Others. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.

Dall, William H. 1916. Biographical memoir of Theodore Nicholas Gill, 1837-1914. Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences 8: 313-43.

Deiss, William A. 1980. Spencer F. Baird and his collectors. J. Soc. Biblio. Nat. Hist. 9 (4): 635-45.

Emory, William H. 1859. Report on the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, 2 vols. Washington: Government Printing Office.

Evermann, Barton W. 1930. David Starr Jordan, the man. Copeia 4: 93-105.

Findling, John E. and K.D. Pelle (eds.). 1990. Historical Dictionary of World's Fairs and Expositions, 1851-1999. New York: Greenwood Press.

Gill, Theodore N. 1896. George Brown Goode. Science, n.s. 4:661-68.

Girard, Charles F. 1858. Fishes. In: U.S. War Department, Reports of Explorations and Surveys, to Ascertain the most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, v. 10. Washington: Government Printing Office.

Girard, Charles F. 1859. Ichthyology of the Boundary. In: William H. Emory, Report on the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, v.2, part 2. Washington: A.O.P. Nicholson.

Girard, Charles F. 1863. A Visit to the Confederate States of America in 1863. Translated, with an introduction by W. S. Hoole. Tuscaloosa, AL: Confederate Publishing Co., 1962.

Goode, G. Brown. 1883. The published writings of Spencer Fullerton Baird, 1843-1882. (Bibliographies of American Naturalists I.) Bulletin of the United States National Museum 20: i-xvi, 1-377. [Goode's introduction was reprinted in 1996 as Biographical sketch of Spencer Fullerton Baird, Marine Fisheries Review 58 (1-2): 40-43.]

Goode, G. Brown. 1884. The Status of the United States Fish Commission in 1884. Washington: Government Printing Office.

Goode, G. Brown. 1884-87. The Fisheries and Fishery Industries of the United States, 7 vols. Washington: Government Printing Office.

Goode, G. Brown. 1888. American Fishes: a Popular Treatise upon the Game and Food Fishes of North America. New York: Standard Book Company.

Goode, G. Brown. 1891. The published writings of Dr. Charles Girard. (Bibliographies of American Naturalists V.) Bulletin of the United States National Museum 41: 1-141.

Goode, G. Brown, ed. 1897. Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896. The History of Its First Half Century. Ciy of Washington: n.p.

Goode, G. Brown, and Tarleton H. Bean. 1896. Oceanic Ichthyology, a Treatise on the Deep-sea and Pelagic Fishes of the World, Based Chiefly upon the Collections Made by the Steamers Blake, Albatross, and Fish Hawk in the Northwestern Atlantic. Washington: Government Printing Office.

Hubbs, Carl L. 1964. History of ichthyology in the United States after 1850. Copeia 1: 42-60.

Hubbs, C. L. 1964. David Starr Jordan. Systematic Zoology 13(4): 195-200.

Hume, Edgar E. 1942. Ornithologists of the United States Army Medical Corps. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press.

Jordan, David S. 1897. Biographical sketch of George Brown Goode. In: G. B. Goode, ed. The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896. The History of Its First Half Century. City of Washington: n.p., pp. 501-15.

Jordan, David S. 1902. The history of ichthyology. Proceedings of American Association for Advancement of Science. 51: 427-56.

Jordan, David S. 1910. George Brown Goode, zoologist 1851-1896. In: his Leading American Men of Science, pp. 391-403.

Jordan, David S. 1922. The Days of a Man: Being Memoires of a Naturalist, Teacher and Minor Prophet of Democracy. Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York: World Book Company, 2 vols.

Jordan, David S. 1923. Spencer Fullerton Baird and the United States Fish Commission. The Scientific Monthly 17: 97-107.

Jordan, D.Starr and Barton W. Evermann. 1896-1900. The Fishes of North and Middle America: A Descriptive Catalogue of the Species of Fish-Like Vertebrates found in the Waters of North America, North of the Isthmus of Panama. (Bulletin of U.S. National Museum, no. 47.)

Kohlstedt, Sally G., ed. 1991. Origins of Natural Science in America: The Essays of George Brown Goode. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Meisel, Max. 1967. A Bibliography of American Natural History, 3 vols. New York: Hafner Publishing Co.

Myers, George S. 1964. A brief sketch of the history of ichthyology in America to the year 1850. Copeia 1: 33-41.

Oehser, Paul H. 1968. Sons of Science: The Story of the Smithsonian Institution and its Leaders. New York: Greenwood Press.

Oehser, Paul H. 1983.The Smithsonian Institution, 2d. ed. Boulder: Westview Press.

Pietsch, Thodore W. and William D. Anderson. 1997. Collection Building in Ichthyology and Herpetology. The American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Special Publication Number 3.

Rathbun, Richard. 1884. The North Pacific Exploring Expedition. Bulletin of U.S. National Museum no. 27: 532-35.

Rivinius, E.F. and E.M. Youssef. 1992. Spencer Baird of the Smithsonian Institution. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Schultz, Leonard P. 1961. A short history of the Division of Fishes, United States National Museum, December 15, 1856 to December 15, 1956. Copeia No. 1 : 120-123.

U.S. War Department. Pacific Railroad Surveys. 1855-1860. Reports of Explorations and Surveys, to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, 12 vols. Washington, n.p.

Viola, J. Herman and Carolyn Margolis (eds). Magnificent Voyagers: The U.S. Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985.

Welch, Margaret. 1998. The Book of Nature: Natural History in the United States, 1825-1875. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

Yochelson, Ellis L. 1985.The National Museum of Natural History: 75 Years in the Natural History Building. Washington, D.C. Smithsoinian Institution Press.

In addition to the above sources, the following biographical dictionaries and annual reports were consulted:

American National Biography. 1900-2000. New York: Oxford University Press. 24 vols.

Biographical Dictionary of American and Canadian Naturalists and Environmentalist. 1997. Keri B. Sterling, etal. (ed). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Dictionary of American Biography. 1928-1935. New York: Charles Scribners. 22 vols.

Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 1970-1980. New York: Charles Scribners. 16 vols.

Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. (various years).

Report of the Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries. (various years).

[ TOP ]