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Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
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Department ofVertebrate Zoology

Division of Fishes

Carl Hansen
© Smithsonian Institution
bar Gymnotiform fish studed by C. David de Santana
    C. David de Santana
    Research Associate

  • Phone: (202) 633-1232
  • E-mail: desantanac[at]
  • E-mail: electriceel2013[at]

  • Mailing Address:
    Smithsonian Institution
    PO Box 37012, MRC 159
    Washington, DC 20013-7012

  • Shipping Address:
    Smithsonian Institution
    National Museum of Natural History
    10th and Constitution Ave, NW
    Washington, DC 20560-0159

Related Links

The Electric Eel News

Discovery and Danger: The Shocking fishes of the Amazon's final frontier

Shock and Awe: behind the scenes of the electric fish exhibit at the National Zoological Park


Ph.D. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia
M.S. Universidade Católica de Pernambuco
B.S. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

Research Interests

I am mostly interested in describe and understand freshwater fish diversity across multiple hierarchical scales. My biodiversity research program is based on museum collections, laboratory, fieldwork, scientific outreach and education. Currently, I am the Smithsonian Institution-PI for the Thematic Project "Diversity and Evolution of Neotropical Electric Fishes" of the cooperation between the São Paulo Research Foundation and Smithsonian Institution (2016/190759). Some of my research can be seen at the Electric Fish exhibit at the Amazonia house of the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park.

Recent Publications

Dutra, Guilherme Moreira, Wanderley Peixoto, Luiz Antonio, De Santana, Carlos David and Wosiacki, Wolmar Benjamin 2018. A new species of Eigenmannia Jordan & Evermann (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes: Sternopygidae) from Rio Ventuari, Venezuela. Zootaxa, 4422(1): 132-140. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4422.1.8

Ferraris, Jr,Carl J., de Santana, Carlos David and Vari, Richard P. 2017. Checklist of Gymnotiformes (Osteichthyes: Ostariophysi) and catalogue of primary types. Neotropical Ichthyology, 15(1) doi:10.1590/1982-0224-20160067

Dutra, Guilherme Moreira, de Santana, Carlos David and Wolmar, Benjamin Wosiacki 2017. A New Species of the Glass Electric Knifefish Genus Eigenmannia Jordan and Evermann (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes: Sternopygidae) from Río Tuíra Basin, Panama. Copeia, 105(1): 85-91. doi:10.1643/CI-16-439

Crampton, William G. R., de Santana, Carlos D., Waddell, Joseph C. and Lovejoy, Nathan R. 2016. A taxonomic revision of the Neotropical electric fish genus Brachyhypopomus (Ostariophysi: Gymnotiformes: Hypopomidae), with descriptions of 15 new species. Neotropical Ichthyology, 14(4) doi:10.1590/1982-0224-20150146

Crampton, William G. R., de Santana, Carlos David, Waddell, Joseph C. and Lovejoy, Nathan R. 2016. Phylogenetic Systematics, Biogeography, and Ecology of the Electric Fish Genus Brachyhypopomus (Ostariophysi: Gymnotiformes). Plos One, 11(10): 1-66. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0161680

Dutra, Guilherme Moreira, Jerep, Fernando C., Vari, Richard P. and de Santana, Carlos David 2015. The pseudotympanum in the Gymnotiformes (Teleostei, Ostariophysi, Otophysi): homology and evolution of a previously unexplored system in Neotropical electric fishes. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 174(1): 114-129. doi:10.1111/zoj.12221

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