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Department ofVertebrate Zoology

Division of Fishes

Carl Hansen
© Smithsonian Institution
bar Gymnotiform fish studed by C. David de Santana
    C. David de Santana
    Postdoctoral Fellow

  • Phone: (202) 633-1232
  • E-mail: desantanac[at]
  • E-mail: apteronotidae[at]

  • Mailing Address:
    Smithsonian Institution
    PO Box 37012, MRC 159
    Washington, DC 20013-7012

  • Shipping Address:
    Smithsonian Institution
    National Museum of Natural History
    10th and Constitution Ave, NW
    Washington, DC 20560-0159

Related Links

The Electric Eel News


Ph.D. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia
M.S. Universidade Católica de Pernambuco
B.S. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

Research Interests

My biodiversity research program encompasses studies of taxonomy plus general questions on the homology and evolutionary biology of fishes using morphological and molecular tools. My core research has been focus on the Neotropical Electric Fishes, order Gymnotiformes. Over the past decade several coauthors and I documented dramatic prior underestimates of the species-level diversity in the Gymnotiformes (i.e., discovery of 100+ new species, half described to date). These prerequisite revisionary analyses underpin studies of more general questions on evolutionary patterns and processes and biogeography across the Neotropics.

Recent Publications

Dutra, Guilherme Moreira, de Santana, Carlos David and Wolmar, Benjamin Wosiacki 2017. A New Species of the Glass Electric Knifefish Genus Eigenmannia Jordan and Evermann (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes: Sternopygidae) from Río Tuíra Basin, Panama. Copeia, 105(1): 85-91. doi:10.1643/CI-16-439

Ferraris, Jr,Carl J., de Santana, Carlos David and Vari, Richard P. 2017. Checklist of Gymnotiformes (Osteichthyes: Ostariophysi) and catalogue of primary types. Neotropical Ichthyology, 15(1) doi:10.1590/1982-0224-20160067

Crampton, William G. R., de Santana, Carlos D., Waddell, Joseph C. and Lovejoy, Nathan R. 2016. A taxonomic revision of the Neotropical electric fish genus Brachyhypopomus (Ostariophysi: Gymnotiformes: Hypopomidae), with descriptions of 15 new species. Neotropical Ichthyology, 14(4) doi:10.1590/1982-0224-20150146

Crampton, William G. R., de Santana, Carlos David, Waddell, Joseph C. and Lovejoy, Nathan R. 2016. Phylogenetic Systematics, Biogeography, and Ecology of the Electric Fish Genus Brachyhypopomus (Ostariophysi: Gymnotiformes). Plos One, 11(10): 1-66. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0161680

Dutra, Guilherme Moreira, Jerep, Fernando C., Vari, Richard P. and de Santana, Carlos David 2015. The pseudotympanum in the Gymnotiformes (Teleostei, Ostariophysi, Otophysi): homology and evolution of a previously unexplored system in Neotropical electric fishes. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 174(1): 114-129. doi:10.1111/zoj.12221

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