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Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

Department ofVertebrate Zoology

Division of Fishes

Carl Hansen
© Smithsonian Institution
bar Carole Baldwin
    Carole Baldwin
    Research Zoologist

  • Phone: (202)633-1205
  • Fax: (202)633-0182
  • E-mail: baldwinc[at]

  • Mailing Address:
    Smithsonian Institution
    PO Box 37012, MRC 159
    Washington, DC 20013-7012

  • Shipping Address:
    Smithsonian Institution
    National Museum of Natural History
    10th and Constitution Ave, NW
    Washington, DC 20560-0159

Related Links

Journey to Galapagos


Ph.D. Marine Science, College of William and Mary
M.S. Marine Biology, College of Charleston
B.S. Biology, James Madison University

Research Interests

Diversity and evolution of coral-reef and deep-sea fishes; taxonomy of larval fishes and their utility in evolutionary studies; patterns of morphological divergence and speciation; marine conservation; public communication of marine science.

Recent Publications

Rocha, Luiz A., Rocha, Claudia R., Baldwin, Carole C., Weigt, Lee A. and Mcfield, Melanie 2015. Invasive lionfish preying on critically endangered reef fish - Springer. Coral Reefs, 34(3): 803-806. doi:10.1007/s00338-015-1293-z

Vaslet, A., Phillips, D. L., France, Christine A. M., Feller, Ilka C. and Baldwin, Carole C. 2015. Trophic behaviour of juvenile reef fishes inhabiting interlinked mangrove-seagrass habitats in offshore mangrove islets. Journal of fish biology, 87(2): 256-273. doi:10.1111/jfb.12715

Baldwin, Carole C. and Robertson, D. Ross 2015. A new, mesophotic Coryphopterus goby (Teleostei, Gobiidae) from the southern Caribbean, with comments on relationships and depth distributions within the genus. Zookeys, 513: 123-142. doi:10.3897/zookeys.513.9998

Anderson, William D., Jr., Johnson, G. David and Baldwin, Carole C. 2015. Review of the Splendid Perches, Callanthias (Percoidei: Callanthiidae). Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 105(3): 1-126.

Rocha, L. A., Aleixo, A., Allen, G., Almeda, F., Baldwin, Carole C., Barclay, M. V. L., Bates, J. M., Bauer, A. M., Benzoni, F., Berns, C. M., Berumen, M. L., Blackburn, D. C., Blum, S., Bolanos, F., Bowie, R. C. K., Britz, R., Brown, R. M., Cadena, C. D., Carpenter, K., Ceriaco, L. M., Chakrabarty, P., Chaves, G., Choat, J. H., Clements, K. D., Collette, Bruce B., et al 2014. Specimen collection: An essential tool. Science, 344(6186): 814-815. doi:10.1126/science.344.6186.814

Baldwin, Carole C. and Johnson, G. David 2014. Connectivity across the Caribbean Sea: DNA Barcoding and Morphology Unite an Enigmatic Fish Larva from the Florida Straits with a New Species of Sea Bass from Deep Reefs off Curaçao. PLoS ONE, 9(5): 1-15. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097661

Conway, Kevin W., Baldwin, Carole C. and White, Macaulay D. 2014. Cryptic Diversity and Venom Glands in Western Atlantic Clingfishes of the Genus Acyrtus (Teleostei: Gobiesocidae). PLoS ONE, 9(5): 1-17. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097664

Baldwin, Carole C. and Robertson, D. Ross 2014. A new Liopropoma sea bass (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Liopropomini) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on depth distributions of western Atlantic liopropomins. ZooKeys, 409: 71-92. doi:10.3897/zookeys.409.7249

Chakrabarty, Prosanta, Warren, Melanie, Page, Lawrence and Baldwin, Carole C. 2013. GenSeq: An updated nomenclature and ranking for genetic sequences from type and non-type sources. Zookeys, 346: 29-41. doi:10.3897/zookeys.346.5753

Baldwin, Carole C. 2013. Deep reef observation project (DROP):a Smithsonian-substation Curaçao collaboration. In: Lang, Michael A. and Sayer, Martin D. J., Proceedings of the Joint International Scientific Diving Symposium American Academy of Underwater Sciences And European Scientific Diving Panel. : ,() pp.13-15.

Fishelson, Lev, Baldwin, Carole C. and Hastings, Philip A. 2013. Gonad morphology, gametogenesis, and reproductive modes in fishes of the tribe starksiini (teleostei, blenniiformes). Journal of Morphology, 274(5): 496-511. doi:10.1002/jmor.20110

Baldwin, Carole C. 2013. The phylogenetic significance of colour patterns in marine teleost larvae. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 168(3): 496-563. doi:10.1111/zoj.12033

Boehm, J. T., Woodall, Lucy, Teske, Peter R., Lourie, Sara A., Baldwin, Carole C., Waldman, John and Hickerson, Mike 2013. Marine dispersal and barriers drive Atlantic seahorse diversification. Journal of Biogeography, 40(10): 1839-1849. doi:10.1111/jbi.12127

Baldwin, Carole C. and Robertson, D. Ross 2013. A new Haptoclinus blenny (Teleostei, Labrisomidae) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on relationships of the genus. Zookeys, 306: 71-81. doi:10.3897/zookeys.306.5198

Frable, Benjamin W., Baldwin, Carole C., Luther, Brendan M. and Weigt, Lee A. 2013. A new species of western Atlantic lizardfish (Teleostei: Synodontidae: Synodus) and resurrection of Synodus bondi Fowler, 1939, as a valid species from the Caribbean with redescriptions of S. bondi, S. foetens (Linnaeus, 1766), and S. intermedius (Agassiz, 1829). Fishery Bulletin, 111(2): 122-146. doi:10.7755/FB.111.2.2

McCosker, John E., Long, Douglas J. and Baldwin, Carole C. 2012. Description of a new species of deepwater catshark, Bythaelurus giddingsi sp nov., from the Galapagos Islands (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhiniformes: Scyliorhinidae). Zootaxa, 3221: 48-59.

Fishelson, Lev, Baldwin, Carole C. and Hastings, Philip A. 2012. Comparison of the oropharyngeal cavity in the Starksiini (Teleostei: Blenniiformes: Labrisomidae): Taste buds and teeth, including a comparison with closely-related genera. Journal of Morphology, 273(6): 618-628. doi:10.1002/jmor.20008

Weigt, Lee A., Driskell, Amy C., Baldwin, Carole C. and Ormos, Andrea 2012. DNA barcoding fishes. In: DNA Barcodes: Methods and Protocols. Humana Press,(Methods in molecular biology) pp.109-126.

Baldwin, Carole C. and Weigt, Lee A. 2012. A New Species of Soapfish (Teleostei: Serranidae: Rypticus), with Redescription of R. subbifrenatus and Comments on the Use of DNA Barcoding in Systematic Studies. Copeia, 2012(1): 23-36. doi:10.1643/CG-11-035

Vaslet, Amandine, France, Christine A. M., Baldwin, Carole C. and Feller, Ilka C. 2012. Dietary habits of juveniles of the Mayan cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus, in mangrove ponds of an offshore islet in Belize, Central America. Neotropical Ichthyology, 10(3): 667-674. doi:10.1590/S1679-62252012000300021

Weigt, Lee A., Baldwin, Carole C., Driskell, Amy C., Smith, David G., Ormos, Andrea and Reyier, Eric A. 2012. Using DNA Barcoding to Assess Caribbean Reef Fish Biodiversity: Expanding Taxonomic and Geographic Coverage. PLoS ONE, 7(7): 1-7. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041059

Vaslet, Amandine, France, Christine A. M., Phillips, D. L., Feller, Ilka C. and Baldwin, Carole C. 2011. Stable-isotope analyses reveal the importance of seagrass beds as feeding areas for juveniles of the speckled worm eel Myrophis punctatus (Teleostei: Ophichthidae) in Florida. Journal of Fish Biology, 79(3): 692-706. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2011.03052.x

Baldwin, Carole C., Brito, Balam J., Smith, David G., Weigt, Lee A. and Escobar-Briones, Elva 2011. Identification of early life-history stages of Caribbean Apogon (Perciformes: Apogonidae) through DNA Barcoding. Zootaxa, 3133: 1-36.

Baldwin, Carole C., Castillo, Cristina I., Weigt, Lee A. and Victor, Benjamin C. 2011. Seven new species within western Atlantic Starksia atlantica, S. lepicoelia, and S. sluiteri (Teleostei, Labrisomidae), with comments on congruence of DNA barcodes and species. Zookeys, 79: 21-72. doi:10.3897/zookeys.79.1045

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