Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier, 1829); squirrelfish. Illustration control number P06506. Collected at Palumbanes Islands, east coast of Luzon, Philippines, 1 June 1909. The specimen on which this painting was based cannot be located. Squirrelfishes are nocturnal reef dwellers, and they hide in caves and crevices during the day. Most species are brilliant red in life, sometimes with patterns of lines or spots.
Alepocephalus bicolor Wood-Mason and Alcock, 1891; slickhead. Illustration control number P00193. USNM 138120, trawled off the east coast of Mindoro, Philippines, at a depth of about 400 meters, 2 February 1908. Alepocephalids live in relatively deep water and are seen only when they are caught in nets. Like most deep-sea fishes, they are fragile and usually come up in damaged condition. The artist did an excellent job of reconstructing the fish as it would have appeared when alive.
Caesio caerulaurea Lacepède, 1801; gold-banded fuselier. Illustration control number P02458. USNM 191778, collected at Guntao Island in the Palawan Passage, Philippines, 20 December 1908. Fuseliers are close relatives of the snappers. They congregate in schools in open water between the reef top and the surface, where they feed on small planktonic organisms. The specific name means 'blue-gold', in reference to the yellow stripe embedded in an irridescent blue background.
Caesio caerulaurea Lacepède, 1801; gold-banded fuselier. Illustration control number P02458 (bottom). USNM 191778. Compare Ito's painting with the specimen as it appears today.
Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppel, 1830); sixblotch hind. Illustration control number P02686. USNM 122262, collected at Malapascua Island, Philippines, 16 March 1909. The groupers are among the most important of the coral-reef fishes. Many of them are used as food by humans. This species is widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific, from the Red Sea and South Africa to French Polynesia. It lives in caves and crevices on the outer reef slope, at depths of 10-150 meters.
Chaetodon auripes Jordan and Snyder, 1901; golden butterfly fish. Illustration control number P02214. Collected at Nan Wan, Taiwan, 25 January 1910. This species is found in the western Pacific from southern Japan to Indonesia.
Cheilinus undulatus Rüppel, 1835; humphead wrasse. Illustration control number P02956. Collected at Malampaya sound, Palawan, Philippines, 23 December 1908. The specimen on which this painting was based cannot be found. The humphead or maori wrasse is the largest member of the family Labridae, reaching a length of two meters and a weight of nearly 200 kilograms. Adults develop a prominent hump on the forehead, giving rise to the common name.
Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus Cuvier, 1828; five-lined cardinalfish. Illustration control number P08532. USNM 171254, collected at Tataan Pass, Philippines, 21 February 1908. Cardinal fishes, family Apogonidae, are common and diverse inhabitants of coral reefs world wide. Most are nocturnal, hiding under ledges and in caves and crevices during the day. This species is common and widely distributed throughout the Indo-West Pacific.
Epibulus insidiator (Pallas, 1770); slingjaw wrasse. Illustration control number P10440. USNM 112256, collected at Pitago Anchorage, Luzon, Philippines, 3 March 1909. The wrasses, family Labridae, are among the most abundant and diverse of the fishes living on coral reefs. The slingjaw wrasse is named for its extremely protrusible jaws, which can be shot forward to capture small prey. It is found throughout the Indo-West Pacific.
Heniochus singularius Smith and Radcliffe, 1911; singular bannerfish. Illustration control number P12753. USNM 182419, collected at Ulugan Bay, Palawan, 29 December 1908. Bannerfishes, genus Heniochus, are members of the butterflyfish family, Chaetodontidae. They are characterized by the greatly elongated fourth dorsal spine. This species was described from specimens collected by the Albatross. The holotype was illustrated in black and white, but this color painting is based on another specimen.
Liopropoma swalesi (Fowler and Bean, 1930); basslet. Illustration control number P14938. USNM 89983, collected at Togian Island, Suluwesi, Indonesia, 19 November 1909. This is a rare species, known only from four specimens, three from Indonesia and one from the island of New Britain. Two of the specimens were collected by the Albatross around Suluwesi. The specimen illustrated is the holotype of the species. This illustration is one of the very few by Ito that have ever been published in color (by Randall and Taylor, 1988, Indo-Pacific Fishes, No. 16), and represents our only knowledge of the fresh color of the species.
Parupeneus trifasciatus Lacepède, 1801; doublebar goatfish. Illustration control number P07541. USNM 160580, collected at Linacapan Island, off the northern tip of Palawan, Philippines, 19 December 1908. Goatfishes are so named because of the two beard-like barbels on the bottom of the lower jaw. The fish uses these to probe in the sediment for food. The doublebar goatfish is widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific.
Plectropomus laevis (Lacepède, 1801); black-saddled coral grouper. Illustration control number P07771. USNM 146935, collected at Talisse Island, Suluwesi, Indonesia. This species is a common and conspicuous inhabitant of coral reefs throughout the tropical Indo-West Pacific, in depths of 4-90 meters. There are two color phases: a pale form with distinct black saddles, like the one illustrated here; and a dark, brown to black form in which the saddles are faint or absent. The dark form is often confused with a related species, Plectropomus maculatus.
Pomacanthus semicirculatus (Cuvier, 1831); semicircle angelfish, adult. Illustration control number P07491. USNM 170539, collected at Atylayan Island, Lagonoy Gulf, Luzon, Philippines, 18 June 1909. Like many fishes, this species changes color markedly as it grows. The pale semicircular markings of the young fish disappear completely when it matures.
Pomacanthus semicirculatus Cuvier, 1831; semicircle angelfish, young. Illustration control number P02359. USNM 182573, collected at Puerto Princessa Bay, Palawan, Philippines, 5 April 1909. The specific name refers to the semicircular markings of the juvenile. These markings disappear in the adult, which becomes brown shading into blue on the posterior part of the body and fins. Comparing the young with the adult, one would never suspect that they belong to the same species.
Iniistius pentadactylus (Linnaeus, 1758); five-finger razorfish. Illustration control number P12284. USNM 153405, collected at Nogas Point, Panay, Philippines, 4 February 1908. Members of the wrasse family, the razorfishes are named for the deep and highly compressed forehead, which resembles a cutting edge. Razorfishes live in sandy habitats; when threatened, they burrow rapidly into the sand headfirst. Iniistius pentadactylus occurs widely in the Indo-West Pacific.